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Kids Science Experiments

20 Easy and Fun Science Experiments for Kids

Curiosity is the innate drive that fuels a child’s thirst for knowledge and understanding. It motivates them to explore, question, and discover the world around them. Children’s curiosity is a powerful catalyst for learning, as it encourages them to seek answers, develop critical thinking skills, and cultivate a lifelong love for learning. Nurturing and encouraging their curiosity is key to their intellectual and personal growth. What better than utilizing this gift to teach them concepts of Science? The best way to understand the phenomenon of science is through experiments. Conducting fun and interesting experiments sparks curiosity in children making them want to explore deeper and better understand what is happening.

We will take you through some Interesting and fun Science experiments that the kids will love.

Colorful Celery

What you need

  • Separate containers or jars (better if transparent)
  • Tap Water
  • Food coloring
  • Celery

The Steps

  • Take the containers and arrange them on a flat surface.
  • Fill them halfway with tap water
  • Add 2 to 3 drops of each food coloring in a different container.
  • Stir with a spoon or straw to mix the coloring well.
  • Add celery to each of these containers and set them aside for a while.

You will see that each celery stick catches the color of water producing a rainbow of celery.it usually takes a few hours for the stem and leaves of celery to change color.

The Science Behind

When food coloring is added to the water, it travels with the water into the celery’s stem and then into the leaves. Plants also absorb nutrients from the soil through the roots and up through the phloem in the plant’s stems. The food coloring illustrates how nutrients are delivered to all parts of the plant.

2. Refraction at play

What you will need

  • A piece of paper (preferably a 4 or a 5)
  • Bold Marker
  • An empty glass of water
  • Water

The Steps

  • Draw two bold arrows on the paper in the same direction(either left or right) with the marker.
  • Next, keep the empty glass exactly in front of the two drawn arrows. Keeping your eyes on the arrows through the empty glass, pour water halfway into it and observe.
  • The bottom arrow seems to be in the opposite direction.
  • You can also fill the glass before and then slide it towards the paper to easily observe the change in direction.

The Science Behind

Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one transparent material to another with a different optical density. This bending occurs due to the change in the speed of light as it transitions between media, resulting in a change in direction. The extent of bending depends on the difference in optical densities, and it is responsible for various optical phenomena, from the apparent bending of submerged objects in water to the functioning of lenses and prisms in optics.

3.Rainbow in a Jar

What you need

  • A clear glass
  • Different liquids from around the house like honey, oil, surface cleaner, dish soap.

The Steps

In this experiment, you create a rainbow-like effect by layering liquids with different densities in a clear glass. Denser liquids, like honey or corn syrup, go at the bottom, and less dense ones, such as dish soap and vegetable oil, remain on top. It’s an excellent way to introduce the concept of density, where denser substances tend to sink beneath lighter ones due to the force of gravity.

Rainbow Facts

The Science Behind

Due to different densities of the included liquids, it is difficult for them to mix with each other. This creates a layer of the liquid and due to different colors , you will get to see a vibrant rainbow.

 

4.Baking Soda and Vinegar Volcano

What you need

  • Baking soda
  • Vinegar
  • A clear container or glass
  • Tray to avoid making a mess.
  • Food coloring(optional)

The Steps

Take the tray and put the clear glass on it. next , add a spoonful of baking soda(for a pronounced reaction) and pour some vinegar on top while maintaining some distance. you will see some bubbling effect ejecting outwards this is due to a reaction between the baking soda and vinegar .

The Science Behind

This classic experiment replicates a volcanic eruption. The baking soda (a base) reacts with the vinegar (an acid), producing carbon dioxide gas. This gas creates bubbles and froth, much like volcanic lava. It’s a fun way to illustrate basic chemical reactions and the concept of acid-base interactions.

5.Invisible Ink

What you need

  • Lemon juice
  • Q tips
  • A small dish to contain the juice
  • A piece of paper
  • Dry iron for clothes to provide heat.

The Steps

Squeeze half a lemon in a shallow dish to hold the juice. now, dip a q tip and write on the paper using the juice as ink. you can write a message or letter as per your wish. Let it air dry slightly for a while. Now heat the clothes iron to a warm temperature to provide heat. next, run it over the paper(if not visible initially, go in for the second round of providing heat) and see the message appear.

The Science Behind

This experiment uses lemon juice as invisible ink. When you heat the paper with the lemon juice message, a chemical reaction occurs as the juice oxidizes, revealing the hidden message. It’s an exciting way to introduce the concept that some chemical reactions are not immediately visible.

6.Homemade Slime

What you need

  • Glue
  • Laundry Detergent
  • a dish to contain the ingredients

The Steps

Making slime involves mixing glue and laundry detergent, creating a non-Newtonian fluid. Stir with a plastic spoon or something similar to help remove any air bubbles for a slimy texture . you may add glitters or confetti to it for vibrant results.

The Science Behind

Non-Newtonian fluids behave like both liquids and solids, depending on how you interact with them. It’s an opportunity to discuss polymers and how they contribute to the unique texture of slime.

7.Walking Water

What you need

  • Paper Towel
  • Water
  • paper cups or glasses (5)
  • food coloring (3)

The Steps

Add a drop or two of food coloring in 3 different cups and leave two untouched. arrange the 5 cups in alternate manner (cup with food coloring is followed by an empty cup).add water in cups with food coloring. take 4 pieces of paper towel and fold it to thicken a bit and place the paper towel end to end in cups(with one end in cup with water and other in empty cup) and wait for a couple of hours.

The Science Behind

This experiment demonstrates capillary action, which is the ability of liquids to move through narrow spaces against gravity. The paper towel serves as a bridge for water to move from one glass to the other, defying gravity and “walking” upwards. It’s an excellent way to teach kids about fluid dynamics and absorption.

8.Mentos and Soda Geyser

What you need

  • Mentos
  • A bottle of Soda
  • a safe place as it can be messy.

The Steps

Open the Soda bottle and carefully place it on a flat surface. get some mentos and drop them all it once in the bottle. make sure to do this very quick as it is a rapid reaction. you can powder the mentos and drop it through a funnel as well.

The Science Behind

This experiment involves dropping Mentos candies into soda, causing a rapid release of carbon dioxide gas. It’s a thrilling way to introduce the concept of nucleation sites, where the Mentos provide surfaces for gas bubbles to form. It’s also a lesson in gas release and pressure changes.

9.Static Electricity Butterfly

What you need

  • A Balloon
  • Paper Butterfly
  • Your Hair

The Steps

By rubbing a balloon on your hair, you generate a static charge.

When you bring the charged balloon near the paper butterfly, static electricity causes the butterfly to be attracted to the balloon.

The Science Behind

This experiment illustrates the basics of electrostatics, where charged objects attract or repel one another.

Facts and opinion cards

10.Egg in a Bottle

What you need

  • A hard-boiled egg (peeled)
  • A glass bottle with a neck that’s just slightly smaller than the egg
  • A piece of paper or a long strip of newspaper
  • A match or a lighter (adult supervision required for lighting)

The Steps

Start with a hard-boiled and peeled egg. It’s important that the egg fits snugly into the neck of the bottle but doesn’t fall through the opening.

Take the piece of paper or the strip of newspaper and roll it into a tight, thin tube. This will serve as a kind of “fuse.”

Carefully light one end of the paper tube using a match or a lighter. Allow it to burn for a few seconds, and then blow it out to create a smoldering ember at the other end.

Quickly place the smoldering end of the paper tube into the neck of the bottle.

While the paper is still smoldering, place the hard-boiled egg on top of the bottle’s opening.

The Science Behind

This experiment highlights the concept of air pressure. As the paper burns inside the bottle, it heats the air, causing it to expand. When the fire goes out and the air cools, it contracts, creating a partial vacuum inside the bottle. The higher air pressure outside pushes the egg into the bottle to equalize the pressure. It’s a hands-on demonstration of how air pressure affects objects.

11.Seed Germination

What you need

  • Seeds (beans, peas, or other large seeds work well)
  • Clear plastic bags
  • Paper towels
  • Water
  • Permanent marker
  • Small containers (like plastic cups)
  • Soil (potting mix or garden soil)
  • Small pots or seedling trays (optional)

The Steps

  • Gather your materials.
  • Label the plastic bags with the type of seed and the date to keep track of each one.
  • Moisten a paper towel so it’s damp but not dripping wet.
  • Place a moist paper towel in each plastic bag.
  • Place a few seeds on the paper towel. The number of seeds can vary, but 2-3 is a good starting point.
  • Seal the bag to create a mini greenhouse, leaving some air inside for the seeds to breathe.
  • Place the bags in a sunny or well-lit location.
  • Over the next few days, observe the seeds. You’ll notice the first signs of germination, such as root and shoot growth.
  • Keep the paper towels moist, ensuring a suitable environment for germination.
  • If you’d like to take the experiment a step further, you can transplant the germinated seeds into small pots or seedling trays filled with soil. Bury the seeds with their roots facing downward.
  • Continue to care for the seedlings by providing water and sunlight.

The Science Behind

Seed germination allows kids to observe and understand the growth of plants from seeds. By placing seeds in different conditions, like varying amounts of light, water, and temperature, they can witness how these factors influence the germination and early growth of plants. It’s a practical introduction to botany and plant science.

12.Oobleck

  • Cornstarch
  • Water
  • Mixing bowl
  • Spoon
  • Food coloring (optional)
  • Tray or shallow container

The Steps

Start by pouring cornstarch into a mixing bowl. The exact amount may vary, but a common ratio is approximately 2 parts cornstarch to 1 part water.
If desired, add a few drops of food coloring to the mixture. This step is optional but can make the Oobleck more visually appealing.
Begin adding water to the cornstarch gradually while stirring with a spoon. You want to achieve a consistency where it’s not too watery, yet not too dry. Aim for a texture that’s smooth and liquid-like when you gently dip your fingers into it but becomes solid when force is applied.
Depending on how you interact with it, Oobleck can act like both a liquid and a solid. You can roll it into a ball and watch it ooze between your fingers.

The Science Behind

Oobleck is a non-Newtonian fluid, which means it doesn’t follow the traditional Newtonian behavior of liquids. When pressure or force is applied to Oobleck, it causes the cornstarch particles to lock together temporarily, forming a semi-solid structure. As soon as the force is removed, the particles relax and the substance reverts to a liquid state.

13.Floating Egg

What you need:

  • A clear glass or jar
  • Water
  • An uncooked egg
  • Salt

The Steps

  • Fill the clear glass or jar about two-thirds full with water. Make sure it’s deep enough to fully submerge the egg.
  • Initially, the egg will sink to the bottom of the glass because it’s denser than water.
  • Begin adding salt to the water while stirring slowly. It’s essential to add the salt gradually and stir well until it’s fully dissolved. Continue to add and stir until no more salt dissolves in the water. At this point, you’ve created a saturated salt solution.
  • Carefully lower the uncooked egg into the glass of saltwater. You should notice that the egg now floats near the surface of the water.

The Science Behind

The key to this experiment is the concept of buoyancy and density. When the egg is placed in plain water, it initially sinks because the density of the egg is greater than that of water. Density is a measure of how much mass is packed into a given volume, and the egg’s density is higher than that of water.

When you add salt to the water and create a saturated salt solution, you increase the water’s density. The more salt you add, the denser the solution becomes. At a certain point, the density of the saltwater exceeds that of the egg. When the egg is placed in this denser saltwater, it becomes positively buoyant, causing it to float near the water’s surface. This experiment demonstrates how the density of a liquid can be altered by dissolving substances in it. By manipulating the density of the water with salt, you can change the egg’s buoyancy, causing it to appear as though it’s magically floating. It’s a great way to teach kids about the principles of density and buoyancy and how they affect the behavior of objects in different liquids.

Roller coaster challenge

14. Lava Lamp

What you need

  • Clear containers such as washed, large juice bottles or mason jars
  • Water
  • Tonic Water
  • A type of oil (vegetable or baby oil, with a preference for baby oil due to its transparency)
  • An Alka Seltzer tablet (or an equivalent like Eno)
  • Liquid food coloring
  • Photoluminescent pigment
  • Sodium Bicarbonate (commonly known as baking soda)
  • Citric Acid
  • Vinegar

The Steps

Start by filling the bottom of the jar or mason jar with water, about a quarter full.

Next, carefully pour vegetable oil into the container, filling it up to leave approximately an inch of space at the top (for mason jars, fill up to the lip).

Now, introduce a few drops of liquid food coloring. It’s a captivating moment as the drops descend through the oil and eventually intermingle with the water at the bottom of the container.

Now, here comes the enchanting part! Add a teaspoon of Alka Seltzer. If you have Alka Seltzer tablets, break them into quarters and add a quarter tablet to initiate the reaction.

Observe as the bubbles bring your homemade lava lamp to life! After a few minutes, the chemical reaction will calm down. To reignite the reaction, just introduce more Alka Seltzer.

The Science Behind

the phenomenon behind a lava lamp is the result of a careful balance of density, buoyancy, and heat. The rising and sinking motion of the wax, combined with the interplay of colors and illumination, creates the captivating and relaxing display that we associate with lava lamps.

15. Bioplastic using milk

What you need

  • Milk
  • a stove top or microwave
  • white vinegar or lemon juice
  • a bowl
  • a spoon
  • a strainer
  • paper towel
  • molds (like Lego minifigures or dinosaur molds)

The Steps

Start by measuring one cup of milk .Warm the milk on the stove or in the microwave until Steaming, then take it off. Add 4 teaspoons of vinegar or lemon juice and gently stir; the exact amount of vinegar is not critical.

You’ll see the milk curdling into curds and whey immediately.
Stir gently for about a minute to ensure all the curds have formed, avoiding vigorous stirring.

Afterward, strain off the whey using a strainer or cheesecloth and let it drip for a few minutes to remove excess liquid. You may need to manipulate the curds in the strainer gently.

Transfer the curds onto layers of paper towels, patting and squeezing them to remove more liquid. Repeat if necessary. The goal is to remove as much liquid as possible. The final result should be a somewhat crumbly and moldable substance that can be shaped as desired.

The Science Behind

The phenomenon involved in making bioplastic using milk is known as “polymerization.” This phenomenon is similar to the coagulation of proteins, and it results in the formation of a biodegradable and environmentally friendly plastic alternative.

16.Elephant Toothpaste

What you need

  • an empty plastic bottle,
  • dry yeast,
  • warm water,
  • liquid dish soap,
  • 3% hydrogen peroxide,
  • liquid food coloring,
  • measuring cups and spoons,
  • safety goggles
  • a large tub or tray and a funnel (optional but helpful for pouring)
  • An infrared non-contact thermometer (optional)
  • Ensure that you use 3% hydrogen peroxide when conducting this experiment with your kids.

The Steps

Begin by mixing one packet of yeast (approximately 1 tablespoon) with 1/4 cup of warm water in a cup to create the first mixture. Let it sit for about 30 seconds while you prepare the beaker.

In the flask, add 150 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide, a tablespoon of dish soap (you can approximate the quantity), and about 15 drops of food coloring if you’d like to add color.

If you choose to measure temperatures, take the temperature of each of the liquids now.

Finally, pour the yeast mixture into the hydrogen peroxide solution.

The Science Behind

The phenomenon behind the “elephant toothpaste” experiment is a rapid chemical reaction known as the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. In this experiment, concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is mixed with a catalyst, typically potassium iodide (KI), along with a bit of dish soap to create a colorful and foamy reaction

17.Walking water

What you need

  • three clear cups or jars of approximately the same size
  • white paper towels
  • food coloring in various colors or beet juice
  • Water

The Steps

Start by cutting a paper towel in half. Then, fold each piece in half lengthwise and fold it in half once more to create long strips of paper towel.

Arrange the three cups in a row, side by side.

Fill the two outer cups halfway with water, leaving the middle cup empty.

Add a few drops of food coloring to the water in the two outer cups, using different colors for each.

Place one end of each paper towel strip into the cups with water, and let the other end dip into the empty middle cup. Repeat this process with the second paper towel strip.

Now, patiently observe as the colored water “walks” from the outer cups to the middle cup. It’s an engaging and colorful demonstration that your kids will find fascinating!

The Science Behind

Water moves through openings in the paper towel fibers, making its way into the empty jar. This phenomenon is known as capillary action and is the same process that allows water to ascend from a plant’s roots to reach its leaves and other parts.

18.Penny Cleaning Experiment

What you need

  •  dirty or tarnished pennies
  • a shallow dish
  • white vinegar
  • salt

The Steps

Start by placing the dirty pennies in a shallow dish. Then, create a mixture of white vinegar and salt. Submerge the pennies in this solution and ensure they are fully covered. Allow them to sit for a short period, typically a few minutes.

The Science Behind

Tarnished pennies have a layer of copper oxide on their surface, which gives them a dull appearance. The chemical reaction that occurs during this experiment is a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction. The vinegar (acetic acid) acts as an acid, while the salt (sodium chloride) provides chloride ions. These chemicals react with the copper oxide, breaking it down into copper ions (reduction) and leaving behind a shiny, clean copper surface.
Concept of Oxidation: This experiment beautifully illustrates the concept of oxidation, which is the process of a substance combining with oxygen or, in this case, reacting with other chemicals to form a compound. In this instance, copper in the pennies undergoes oxidation, and the tarnish is removed.

19.Static Electricity Butterfly

What you need

  • a balloon
  • small pieces of paper or confetti
  • your hair

The Steps

Begin by rubbing the balloon vigorously against your hair. The friction between the balloon and your hair results in the transfer of electrons. This makes the balloon negatively charged. Then, hold the charged balloon near the pieces of paper or confetti. You’ll notice them being attracted to the balloon without any physical contact.

The Science Behind

The experiment demonstrates the basics of electrostatics, specifically the concept of static electricity. When you rub the balloon against your hair, it gains an excess of electrons, making it negatively charged. The pieces of paper or confetti, on the other hand, are neutrally charged. Opposite charges attract, so the negatively charged balloon attracts the neutrally charged paper or confetti.
Attraction and Repulsion: You can also introduce the concept of attraction and repulsion here. If you bring the negatively charged balloon close to another negatively charged object, they will repel each other, showing that like charges repel. Conversely, a positively charged object would be attracted to the negatively charged balloon, illustrating the principle that opposite charges attract.

Forms of energy

20.Magic Bag of Ice

What you need

  • Ziplock bags (two of them)
  • Water
  • Table salt
  • Ice cubes

The Steps

Start by taking one of the Ziplock bags and fill it with water. Be sure not to overfill it; leaving some room for expansion is a good idea. Seal the bag tightly, removing as much air as possible.

Now, take the second Ziplock bag and place the water-filled bag inside it. Make sure this outer bag is also sealed well.

Add a generous amount of table salt to the outer bag, and then place a handful of ice cubes into the same bag. The ice cubes should surround the water-filled bag but not directly touch it.

Gently squeeze and shake the bags for a few minutes. You can do this with your hands or place the bags inside a larger container and shake it. You’ll notice that the water inside the inner bag begins to cool and eventually turns into ice.

The Science Behind

This experiment is a fantastic way to demonstrate the scientific concept of freezing point depression. When salt is added to ice, it lowers the freezing point of water. Typically, water freezes at 0°C (32°F). However, when salt is introduced, it disrupts the regular freezing process, requiring lower temperatures for ice to form.

As a result, the ice cubes in the outer bag, in contact with the salt, become very cold. The cold environment created by the salted ice “borrows” heat energy from the inner water-filled bag, causing the water inside to lose heat rapidly.

During this process, the water’s temperature drops below its freezing point, and it begins to solidify into ice. This occurs inside the inner bag, despite the fact that it was initially at room temperature. It’s an impressive and visually engaging way to observe the principle of freezing point depression in action.

This experiment not only illustrates a fascinating scientific concept but also provides a fun hands-on experience for kids, allowing them to witness the transformation of water into ice right before their eyes.

Final Words

We hope you took valuable insights from our blog on “20 Easy Science Experiments for Kids” at Teacher Professional Development. it is a valuable resource for educators. These experiments are tools to ignite curiosity, nurture a love for science, and provide interactive learning experiences. They enhance scientific understanding and foster critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Teachers are encouraged to adapt and innovate these experiments to enrich the educational experience, promoting scientific literacy and empowering a generation of curious and confident young scientists.

 

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